How is americium 241 made?

The isotope americium-241 was made by bombarding uranium-238 with alpha particles (helium nuclei). This produced plutonium-241 which decays to the Am-241. This isotope decays slowly by alpha emission with a halflife of 500 years. It has been used as a source in smoke detectors.

Also, where is americium found?

Americium was discovered in 1944 by the American scientists Glenn T. Seaborg, Ralph A. James, Leon O. Morgan and Albert Ghiorso. They produced americium by bombarding plutonium-239, an isotope of plutonium, with high energy neutrons.

Where is americium 241 found?

It is the most prevalent isotope of americium in nuclear waste. Americium-241 has a half-life of 432.2 years. It is commonly found in ionization type smoke detectors.

Is americium metal?

Americium is a silvery-white highly radioactive metal that has a density similar to lead. It tarnishes slowly in dry air at room temperature. Isotope 241Am, the most common isotope, decays to 237Np, emitting alpha and gamma radiation(1).

Is americium harmful?

Since alpha particles do not penetrate the skin and the gamma rays released from americium sources are relatively low in energy, external exposure to americium is not usually considered to be a danger to your health. The radiation from americium is the primary cause of adverse health effects from absorbed americium.

Where is americium found?

Americium was discovered in 1944 by the American scientists Glenn T. Seaborg, Ralph A. James, Leon O. Morgan and Albert Ghiorso. They produced americium by bombarding plutonium-239, an isotope of plutonium, with high energy neutrons.

What material is best for shielding neutron radiation?

The best materials for shielding neutrons must be able to: Slow down neutrons (the same principle as the neutron moderation). First point can be fulfilled only by material containing light atoms (e.g. hydrogen atoms), such as water, polyethylene, and concrete.

How is alpha decay used?

Uses. Americium-241, an alpha emitter, is used in smoke detectors. The alpha particles ionize air in an open ion chamber and a small current flows through the ionized air. Alpha decay is much more easily shielded against than other forms of radioactive decay.

Why is it called americium?

Americium was the fourth synthetic transuranium element of the actinide series to be discovered. The element was named after America, because it is located below Europium (element 63) in the periodic table, which was named after Europe.

Is americium 241 radioactive?

Like all isotopes of americium, it is radioactive. It is the most prevalent isotope of americium in nuclear waste. Americium-241 has a half-life of 432.2 years. It is commonly found in ionization type smoke detectors.

How does americium detect smoke?

Diagram of how americium is used in some smoke detectors. Ionization smoke detectors use a small amount of radioactive material, americium-241, to detect smoke. Alpha particles from the americium source ionize air molecules, allowing positive and negative ions to flow between charged plates in the smoke detector.

How Americium 241 is made?

The isotope americium-241 was made by bombarding uranium-238 with alpha particles (helium nuclei). This produced plutonium-241 which decays to the Am-241. This isotope decays slowly by alpha emission with a halflife of 500 years. It has been used as a source in smoke detectors.

Is americium radioactive?

Americium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Am and atomic number 95. It is a transuranic member of the actinide series, in the periodic table located under the lanthanide element europium, and thus by analogy was named after the Americas.

How much is the cost of americium?

The americium oxide used in smoke detectors costs around $1500 per gram – compare this with the current gold price of around $30 per gram.

How long does americium last?

The isotope of americium used in smoke detectors is americium-241, which decays by α emission to neptunium-237 with a half-life of 432.2 years.

What is californium 252 used for?

Californium-252, an isotope with a half-life of about 2.6 years, is a very strong neutron source. One microgram (0.000001 grams) of californium-252 produces 170,000,000 neutrons per minute. It is being used as a neutron source to identify gold and silver ores through a technique known as neutron activation.

What is the family for americium?

Americium is called an actinide or transuranium element. It occurs in Row 7 of the periodic table, a chart that shows how the chemical elements are related to each other. The first element in that row is actinium, which explains the name actinide. The term transuranium means “beyond uranium” on the periodic table.

Is MG 24 radioactive?

Isotopes. Magnesium has three stable isotopes, Mg-24, Mg-25, Mg-26. The most common isotope is Mg-24, which is 79% of all Mg found on Earth. Magnesium not only has stable isotopes, but also has radioactive isotopes, which are isotopes that have an unstable nuclei.

Where was the element Berkelium discovered?

Berkelium was synthesized at and is named after the University of California, Berkeley. The eighth member of the actinide transition series, berkelium was discovered in December 1949 by Thompson, Albert Ghiorso, and Glenn Seaborg, and was the fifth transuranium element synthesized.

What is the use of berkelium?

As with other actinide elements, berkelium tends to accumulate in the skeletal system. Berkelium is artificially produced, and has only been produced in relatively small amounts. It can be made through bombarding 241Am, an isotope of americium, with alpha particles using a cyclotron.

What is the use of neptunium?

Uses of Neptunium. When bombarded with neutrons neptunium-237 is used to produce plutonium-238 which is used for spacecraft generators and terrestrial navigation beacons. Neptunium is also used in neutron detection equipment.

Do smoke detectors expire?

NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm Code®, requires smoke alarms be replaced at least every 10 years, but because the public is generally unaware of this requirement, many homes have smoke alarms past their expiration date, putting people at increased risk.

What is the use of cobalt 60?

Cobalt-60 is a beta-emitting radioactive isotope of cobalt-59. In cobalt-60 therapy, cobalt-60-generated gamma radiation is used to destroy tumors. Cobalt-60 therapy is also known as Gamma Knife® therapy. Gamma Knife® is a registered trademark of Elekta Instruments, Inc.

What is the decay reaction of thorium 234?

Th-234 has a half-life of 24.1 days, and when it decays, it emits a beta particle, and in so doing, it transmutes into protactinium-234. Th-234 has a mass of 234.0436 atomic mass units (amu), and it has a decay energy of about 270 keV (kiloelectronvolts).

Originally posted 2022-03-31 03:55:12.

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