What is a blast furnace and how does it work?

Blast furnaces such as the two in Wales are huge steel stacks lined with brick. Iron ore, coke and limestone are dumped in the top, and preheated air is blown or blasted into the bottom of the chamber. This process, through various chemical reactions, produces liquid iron — or hot metal as it sometimes called.

Beside this, what reaction takes place in a blast furnace?

Iron is extracted from iron ore in a huge container called a blast furnace. Iron ores such as haematite contain iron oxide. The oxygen must be removed from the iron oxide to leave the iron behind. Reactions in which oxygen is removed are called reduction reactions.

How hot is a blast furnace?

The hot blast is directed into the furnace through water-cooled copper nozzles called tuyeres near the base. The hot blast temperature can be from 900 °C to 1300 °C (1600 °F to 2300 °F) depending on the stove design and condition. The temperatures they deal with may be 2000 °C to 2300 °C (3600 °F to 4200 °F).

What is the purpose of coke in a blast furnace?

Uses. Coke is used as a fuel and as a reducing agent in smelting iron ore in a blast furnace. The carbon monoxide produced by its combustion reduces iron oxide (hematite) in the production of the iron product. Coke is commonly used as fuel for blacksmithing.

How does a blast furnace works?

The purpose of a blast furnace is to chemically reduce and physically convert iron oxides into liquid iron called “hot metal”. The blast furnace is a huge, steel stack lined with refractory brick, where iron ore, coke and limestone are dumped into the top, and preheated air is blown into the bottom.

Why is most iron converted into steel?

Iron and steel. Pure iron is soft and easily shaped because its atoms are arranged in a regular way that lets layers of atoms slide over each other. Pure iron is too soft for many uses. Iron from the blast furnace is an alloy of about 96 percent iron, with carbon and some other impurities.

What is the use of blast furnace?

The purpose of a blast furnace is to chemically reduce and physically convert iron oxides into liquid iron called “hot metal”. The blast furnace is a huge, steel stack lined with refractory brick, where iron ore, coke and limestone are dumped into the top, and preheated air is blown into the bottom.

What is added to a blast furnace to remove impurities?

The iron ore, coke and limestone (“charge”) is fed into the blast furnace from the top. This molten iron can be tapped off from the bottom of the furnace. Removal of impurities. Iron ore often has silicon dioxide (sand) impurity which must be removed during the process.

What is a blast furnace gas?

Blast furnace gas (BFG) is a by-product of blast furnaces that is generated when the iron ore is reduced with coke to metallic iron. It has a very low heating value, about 93 BTU/cubic foot (3.5 MJ/m³, because it consists of about 60 percent nitrogen and 18-20% carbon dioxide, which are not flammable.

How does a basic oxygen furnace work?

The basic oxygen steel-making process is as follows: Molten pig iron (sometimes referred to as “hot metal”) from a blast furnace is poured into a large refractory-lined container called a ladle. The metal in the ladle is sent directly for basic oxygen steelmaking or to a pretreatment stage.

What are the waste gases from the blast furnace?

(top gas), the waste gas from blast furnaces; mainly the products of the incomplete combustion of carbon. Its chemical composition during the smelting of cast iron on coal coke is 12–20 percent carbon dioxide, 20–30 percent carbon monoxide, up to 0.5 percent methane, 1–4 percent hydrogen, and 55–58 percent nitrogen.

What is the slag in a blast furnace?

Ground-granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS or GGBFS) is obtained by quenching molten iron slag (a by-product of iron and steel-making) from a blast furnace in water or steam, to produce a glassy, granular product that is then dried and ground into a fine powder.

Why do they call it pig iron?

The name ‘pig iron’ originated in the early days of iron-ore reduction when the total output of the blast furnace was sand cast into ‘pigs’ —a mass of iron roughly resembling the shape of a reclining pig.

What did Abraham Darby do?

Born into an English Quaker family that played an important role in the Industrial Revolution, Darby developed a method of producing pig iron in a blast furnace fuelled by coke rather than charcoal. This was a major step forward in the production of iron as a raw material for the Industrial Revolution.

Why aluminum is more expensive than iron or steel?

Extraction of aluminium. Aluminium is the most abundant metal on Earth. Despite this, it is expensive, largely because of the amount of electricity used up in the extraction process. The bauxite is purified to yield a white powder, aluminium oxide, from which aluminium can be extracted.

What is blast furnace on Black Ops 3?

Blast Furnace is a Pack-a-Punched upgrade module in Call of Duty: Black Ops III. It gives the weapon a chance to shoot out a bullet that will burst into flames and kill any zombies in the immediate area. If a zombie comes into contact with the flame they will eventually burn to death.

How iron is produced?

A certain proportion of carbon (between 0.002% and 2.1%) produces steel, which may be up to 1000 times harder than pure iron. Crude iron metal is produced in blast furnaces, where ore is reduced by coke to pig iron, which has a high carbon content.

How iron is made of?

A blast furnace is charged with iron ore, charcoal or coke (coke is charcoal made from coal) and limestone (CaCO3). Huge quantities of air blast in at the bottom of the furnace, and the calcium in the limestone combines with the silicates to form slag. Once it cools, this metal is known as pig iron.

What is the use of slag?

Modern uses. Ground granulated slag is often used in concrete in combination with Portland cement as part of a blended cement. Ground granulated slag reacts with water to produce cementitious properties.

What is the use of pig iron?

Pig iron is the product of smelting iron ore (also ilmenite) with a high-carbon fuel and reductant such as coke, usually with limestone as a flux. Charcoal and anthracite are also used as fuel and reductant. Pig iron is produced by smelting or iron ore in blast furnaces or by smelting ilmenite in electric furnaces.

What metal is often extracted and purified from its ore using both smelting and electrolysis?

Copper can be extracted from its ore by heating it with carbon. Impure copper is purified by electrolysis in which the anode is impure copper, the cathode is pure copper and the electrolyte is copper sulphate solution. An alloy is a mixture of two elements, one of which is a metal.

Why is pure iron is described as an element?

Iron is the main structural metal used in the world. (a) The diagram represents the particles in iron, Fe. Draw a ring around the correct word in the box to complete the sentence. Iron is described as an element because all the atoms compounds metals are the same.

Why does lime water bubble?

The CO2 then bubbles up through the straw and into the limewater. Limewater is created with calcium hydroxide, or Ca(OH)2. Named for the mineral, not the fruit, lime reacts with CO2 in water to form calcium carbonate, which is white and does not dissolve in water, causing the water to turn cloudy.

How do you extract zinc from its ore?

As with many metals, pure zinc can be prepared from an ore by one of two methods. First, the ore can be roasted (heated in air). Roasting converts the ore to a compound of zinc and oxygen, zinc oxide (ZnO). The compound can then be heated with charcoal (pure carbon ).

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