What is a charge balance?

Mass Balance and Charge Balance. Most equilibrium problems present you with analytical (“big C”) concentrations of various things, then ask you to compute an equilibrium (“[ ]”) concentration of some species. Two of the steps required for such solutions involve Mass Balance and Charge Balance.

Just so, what is the material balance equation?

Material balance in oil reservoirs. The material-balance equation is the simplest expression of the conservation of mass in a reservoir. The equation mathematically defines the different producing mechanisms and effectively relates the reservoir fluid and rock expansion to the subsequent fluid withdrawal.

What is a balance scale used to measure?

Spring balances or spring scales calculate weight that is the product of mass into gravity (9.807 m/s2) on the force on a spring, whereas a balance or pair of scales using a balance beam compares masses by balancing the weight due to the mass of an object against the weight of one or more known masses.

What is the energy balance?

Energy is another word for “calories.” Your energy balance is the balance of calories consumed through eating and drinking compared to calories burned through physical activity. You burn a certain number of calories just by breathing air and digesting food.

What is a mass balance calculation?

A mass balance, also called a material balance, is an application of conservation of mass to the analysis of physical systems. By accounting for material entering and leaving a system, mass flows can be identified which might have been unknown, or difficult to measure without this technique.

What is the mass balance of a glacier?

Crucial to the survival of a glacier is its mass balance or surface mass balance (SMB), the difference between accumulation and ablation (sublimation and melting). Climate change may cause variations in both temperature and snowfall, causing changes in the surface mass balance.

How often do we get an ice age?

Summary: Science has struggled to explain fully why an ice age occurs every 100,000 years.

How do moraines form in a glacier?

A lateral moraine forms along the sides of a glacier. As the glacier scrapes along, it tears off rock and soil from both sides of its path. This material is deposited as lateral moraine at the top of the glacier’s edges. Lateral moraines are usually found in matching ridges on either side of the glacier.

What do eskers record?

Geology. Most eskers are argued to have formed within ice-walled tunnels by streams which flowed within and under glaciers. They tended to form around the time of the glacial maximum when the glacier was slow and sluggish. After the retaining ice walls melted away, stream deposits remained as long winding ridges.

Is the rock in moraines sorted or unsorted?

Till refers to material deposited by glacial ice. Thus moraines are composed of till. Regardless of the moraine class, one characteristic all moraines share is that the till (or rock debris) comprising moraines is unsorted.

What does the location of a terminal moraine tell you about the glacier?

A terminal moraine, also called end moraine, is a type of moraine that forms at the snout (edge) of a glacier, marking its maximum advance. The moraine is left as the marking point of the terminal extent of the ice.

Why are glaciers such effective agents of the erosion and deposition?

Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, erosion is the moving of rocks, and deposition is the laying down of rocks. Why are glaciers such effective agents of erosion and deposition? When glaciers move the push sediment out of the way and when they melt they create kettles.

What role does wind play in the processes of erosion and deposition?

Water plays an important role in weathering and breaking down rock. Rocks are hard and strong, but they do not stay that way forever. Forces like wind and water break down rocks through the processes of weathering and erosion. Weathering and erosion help shape Earth’s surface.

How is a glacier similar to a river?

Glaciers are called “rivers of ice.” Just like rivers, glaciers have fall lines where the bed of the glacier gets narrow or descends rapidly. Ice flows down the icefall just like water falls down a waterfall.

What causes valley glaciers to move?

A glacier is a large accumulation of many years of snow, transformed into ice. This solid crystalline material deforms (changes) and moves. Glaciers, also known as “rivers of ice,” actually flow. Gravity is the cause of glacier motion; the ice slowly flows and eforms (changes) in response to gravity.

How much of the Earth’s water is ready for use by humans?

Freshwater makes up a very small fraction of all water on the planet. While nearly 70 percent of the world is covered by water, only 2.5 percent of it is fresh. The rest is saline and ocean-based. Even then, just 1 percent of our freshwater is easily accessible, with much of it trapped in glaciers and snowfields.

What is the Earth called the water planet?

If you look down at our planet from outer space, most of what you see is water; 71% of the planet’s surface is covered by ocean and it is because of this that the Earth is sometimes called “the water planet”. Only about three-tenths of our globe is covered with land.

What percentage of the world’s water is undrinkable?

Freshwater makes up a very small fraction of all water on the planet. While nearly 70 percent of the world is covered by water, only 2.5 percent of it is fresh. The rest is saline and ocean-based. Even then, just 1 percent of our freshwater is easily accessible, with much of it trapped in glaciers and snowfields.

Where is most of the world’s freshwater found?

According to the U.S. Geological Survey, most of that three percent is inaccessible. Over 68 percent of the fresh water on Earth is found in icecaps and glaciers, and just over 30 percent is found in ground water. Only about 0.3 percent of our fresh water is found in the surface water of lakes, rivers, and swamps.

How much of the world’s water is contaminated?

In developing countries, 70 percent of industrial wastes are dumped untreated into waters, polluting the usable water supply. On average, 22 million tons of fertilizers and chemicals are used each year.

How many fish are killed by pollution?

In 1975, the National Academy of Sciences estimated that ocean-based sources, such as cargo ships and cruise liners had dumped 14 billion pounds of garbage into the ocean. Over 1 million seabirds and 100,000 sea mammals are killed by pollution every year.

What is in unsafe water?

Waterborne diseases are caused by drinking contaminated or dirty water. Contaminated water can cause many types of diarrheal diseases, including Cholera, and other serious illnesses such as Guinea worm disease, Typhoid, and Dysentery. Water related diseases cause 3.4 million deaths each year.

What is a balance scale used to measure?

Spring balances or spring scales calculate weight that is the product of mass into gravity (9.807 m/s2) on the force on a spring, whereas a balance or pair of scales using a balance beam compares masses by balancing the weight due to the mass of an object against the weight of one or more known masses.

What is the purpose of a balance scale?

It has a balanced beam and two pans. When the pans contain exactly the same mass the beam is in balance. You can place an object in one pan and standard weights in the other to find what the object weighs. Here balance scales are used to show that the box “x” has a mass of 4 kg.

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