What is a cofferdam and caisson?

Caissons and Cofferdams. A Caisson is a watertight structure used for retaining water in order to work on the foundations for bridges, piers, and other structures. Generally speaking, the water is pumped out to create a completely dry work environment.

Also question is, what is the main purpose of a cofferdam?

A cofferdam (also called a coffer) is an enclosure built within, or in pairs across, a body of water and constructed to allow the enclosed area to be pumped out. This pumping creates a dry work environment for work to proceed.

How a cofferdam is built?

A cofferdam (also called a coffer) is an enclosure built within, or in pairs across, a body of water and constructed to allow the enclosed area to be pumped out. Enclosed coffers are commonly used for construction or repair of oil platforms, bridge piers, and other support structures built within or over water.

What is sheet pile?

Sheet piles are sections of sheet materials with interlocking edges that are driven into the ground to provide earth retention and excavation support. Sheet piles are most commonly made of steel, but can also be formed of timber or reinforced concrete. The required depth of piles.

What is a drilled caisson?

Also called caissons, drilled shafts, drilled piers, Cast-in-drilled-hole piles (CIDH piles) or Cast-in-Situ piles, a borehole is drilled into the ground, then concrete (and often some sort of reinforcing) is placed into the borehole to form the pile.

What is a piling in construction?

Pile. construction. Pile, in building construction, a postlike foundation member used from prehistoric times. In modern civil engineering, piles of timber, steel, or concrete are driven into the ground to support a structure; bridge piers may be supported on groups of large-diameter piles.

What are pilings used for?

Piling is a type of deep foundation, used to transfer the load to a deeper level than is possible with a traditional shallow foundation. Vertical columns of concrete, steel or wood, or a combination, are driven deep into the ground to give extra support to the building that sits on top.

What is the cause of pile?

Piles are caused by increased pressure in the lower rectum. The blood vessels around the anus and in the rectum will stretch under pressure and may swell or bulge, forming piles. This may be due to: chronic constipation.

Why do we use pile foundation?

Pile foundations are principally used to transfer the loads from superstructures, through weak, compressible strata or water onto stronger, more compact, less compressible and stiffer soil or rock at depth, increasing the effective size of a foundation and resisting horizontal loads.

What is the use of pile cap?

A pile cap is a thick concrete mat that rests on concrete or timber piles that have been driven into soft or unstable ground to provide a suitable stable foundation. It usually forms part of the foundation of a building, typically a multi-story building, structure or support base for heavy equipment.

What are the types of pile foundation?

Pile foundations are capable of taking higher loads than spread footings. There are two fundamental types of pile foundations (based on structural behaviour), each of which works in its own way. In end bearing piles, the bottom end of the pile rests on a layer of especially strong soil or rock.

What is the well foundation?

Well foundation is a type of deep foundation which is generally provided below the water level for bridges. Cassions or well have been in use for foundations of bridges and other structures since Roman and Mughal periods. The term ‘cassion’ is derived from the French word caisse which means box or chest.

What is pile foundation in construction?

A pile is basically a long cylinder of a strong material such as concrete that is pushed into the ground to act as a steady support for structures built on top of it. Pile foundations are used in the following situations: When there is a layer of weak soil at the surface.

What is the foundation of construction?

A skyscraper deep foundation. A foundation is a lower portion of building structure that transfers its gravity loads to the earth. Foundations are generally broken into two categories: shallow foundations and deep foundations. A tall building must have a strong foundation if it is to stand for a long time.

What is the raft foundation?

Raft foundations (sometimes known as Mat Foundations) are a large concrete slab which can support a number of columns and walls. The slab is spread out under the entire building or at least a large part of it which lowers the contact pressure compared to the traditionally used strip or trench footings.

What is the difference between raft and footing?

Raft and Mat foundation are both same!! Raft foundation is a thick concrete slab reinforced with steel which covers the entire contact area of the structure like a thick floor. Sometimes area covered by raft may be greater than the contact area depending on bearing capacity of the soil underneath.

What is a mat footing?

Mat foundations. A mat foundation, sometimes called a raft foundation, looks like it sounds. It is a “mat” of concrete that sits on or just below the ground; in other words, a shallow foundation. You may have heard it referred to as a slab foundation, a common choice for steel buildings.

What is a cantilever footing?

It is a type of combined footing, consisting of two or more column footings connected by a concrete beam. This type of beam is called a strap beam. It is used to help distribute the weight of either heavily or eccentrically loaded column footings to adjacent footings.

What is a combined footing?

Whenever two or more columns in a straight line are carried on a single spread footing, it is called a combined footing. Isolated footings for each column are generally the economical.

What is sheet pile?

Sheet piles are sections of sheet materials with interlocking edges that are driven into the ground to provide earth retention and excavation support. Sheet piles are most commonly made of steel, but can also be formed of timber or reinforced concrete. The required depth of piles.

What is the steel pile?

Steel sheet piles are long structural sections with a vertical interlocking system that creates a continuous wall. The walls are most often used to retain either soil or water. The ability of a sheet pile section to perform is dependent upon its geometry and the soils it is driven into.

What are sheet piles made of?

Concrete sheet piles are usually prestressed to facilitate handling and driving. Special corner and angle sections are typically made from reinforced concrete due to the limited number required.

What is a soldier pile?

A soldier pile is a common retaining wall strategy in which H-shaped steel beams (“piles”) are drilled deep into the earth at regular intervals — usually 2 to 4 yards apart.

What is a fender pile?

fender pile. Word Origin. a pile, usually one of a group, set beside ferry slips, wharves, etc., to guide approaching vessels and driven so as to yield slightly when struck in order to lessen the shock of contact.

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