What is the meaning of Melanonychia?

Melanonychia is a black or brown pigmentation of the normal nail plate, and may be present as a normal finding on many digits in Afro-Caribbeans, as a result of trauma, systemic disease, or medications, or as a postinflammatory event from such localized events as lichen planus or fixed drug eruption.

In this manner, what does it mean when there’s a black line in your nail?

A narrow black line that has formed vertically underneath your nail is called a splinter hemorrhage. It occurs for a variety of reasons and may be harmless or a sign of a more serious health condition. The condition is caused by damaged small blood vessels underneath your nail.

What causes longitudinal Melanonychia?

The most concerning cause of melanonychia is subungual melanoma, although a variety of other causes includes physiologic longitudinal melanonychia, systemic disorders, trauma, inflammatory disorders, fungal infections, drugs, and benign melanocytic hyperplasias.

Is nail melanoma serious?

Subungual melanoma is a type of melanoma in the nails. While subungual melanoma is a relatively rare condition compared to other skin cancers, it can lead to serious complications. Early detection and treatment is a must.

What does it mean when you have a line in your toenail?

Toenail ridges usually aren’t a serious problem, but they could signal an underlying disease. Vertical toenail ridges are tiny, raised lines or ridges that run up and down the length of the nail. Vertical toenail ridges, especially when they are spaced evenly across the whole nail, are usually harmless.

Why my nails are brown?

A yellowish coloring of the nails may also be caused by diabetes, lung problems, arthritis, lupus, certain medications, lymphatic system disorders and liver disease. Fungus infections of the fingernails can also turn the nails brown or yellow.

What is Laugier Hunziker syndrome?

Laugier–Hunziker syndrome is a rare acquired disorder characterized by diffuse hyperpigmentation of the oral mucosa and longitudinal melanonychia in adults. They appear as macular lesions less than 5 mm in diameter.

What does Onychophagy mean?

Nail biting, also known as onychophagy or onychophagia (or even erroneously onchophagia), is an oral compulsive habit. It is sometimes described as a parafunctional activity, the common use of the mouth for an activity other than speaking, eating, or drinking.

What is a splinter hemorrhage?

Splinter hemorrhages (or haemorrhages) are tiny blood clots that tend to run vertically under the nails.

What are the causes of splinter hemorrhages?

Splinter hemorrhages look like thin, red to reddish-brown lines of blood under the nails. They run in the direction of nail growth. They are named splinter hemorrhages because they look like a splinter under the fingernail. The hemorrhages may be caused by tiny clots that damage the small capillaries under the nails.

What can cause splinter hemorrhages?

Splinter hemorrhages occur when blood leaks or swells from small blood vessels that run up and down the nail bed. Tiny blood clots known as microemboli in the capillaries can also cause splinter hemorrhages. One of the most common causes of splinter hemorrhages is trauma to the nails.

Can bacterial endocarditis be cured?

In many cases of endocarditis, antibiotics alone can cure the infection. However, in about 25-30 percent of patients with IE, surgery is needed during the early acute phase of infection due to severe valve leakage or failure to control the infection with antibiotics.

What are the signs and symptoms of endocarditis?

Common signs and symptoms of endocarditis include:

  • Flu-like symptoms, such as fever and chills.
  • A new or changed heart murmur, which is the heart sounds made by blood rushing through your heart.
  • Fatigue.
  • Aching joints and muscles.
  • Night sweats.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Chest pain when you breathe.
  • What is the most common cause of endocarditis?

    Bacterial. Staphylococcus aureus followed by Streptococci of the viridans group and coagulase negative Staphylococci are the three most common organisms responsible for infective endocarditis. Other Streptococci and Enterococci are also a frequent cause of infective endocarditis.

    What is the mortality rate of endocarditis?

    “Infective endocarditis is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Several published studies have reported in-hospital mortality of 15 percent to 20 percent and 1-year mortality of 40 percent. In the United States alone, approximately 15,000 new cases of infective endocarditis are diagnosed each year.

    What is a potential complication of endocarditis?

    The following are potential complications of IE:

  • Myocardial infarction, pericarditis, cardiac arrhythmia.
  • Cardiac valvular insufficiency.
  • Congestive heart failure.
  • Sinus of Valsalva aneurysm.
  • Aortic root or myocardial abscesses.
  • Arterial emboli, infarcts, mycotic aneurysms.
  • Arthritis, myositis.
  • Can a person die from endocarditis?

    Untreated, most patients with infective endocarditis will die. The infection can lead to damage of the heart valve(s) that in turn causes severe leaking (regurgitation) of blood back through the valve(s) and an inability of the heart to efficiently pump blood to the body.

    Can endocarditis lead to sepsis?

    Sepsis, a severe blood infection, introduces a large number of bacteria into the bloodstream. When the number of bacteria in the bloodstream is large enough, endocarditis can develop, even in people who have normal heart valves. In most other cases of endocarditis, the mitral valve or the aortic valve is infected.

    How do they test for endocarditis?

    If your doctor suspects infective endocarditis, your blood will be tested for bacteria. A complete blood count (CBC) may also be used to check for anemia. A shortage of red blood cells can occur with infective endocarditis. Your doctor may order an echocardiogram, or an ultrasound of the heart.

    Is endocarditis deadly?

    Endocarditis is an infection that “devours” the heart muscle. However, if those bacteria enter your bloodstream, they can stick to and attack your heart’s valves or inner lining (endocardium) and become deadly.

    Which antibiotics treat endocarditis?

    Treatment Regimens for Infectious EndocarditisMicroorganismParenteral antibiotic regimenPenicillin-susceptible viridans Streptococcus or Streptococcus bovisVancomycin for four weeksRelatively penicillin-resistant viridans Streptococcus or S. bovisPenicillin G or ceftriaxone for four weeks, plus gentamicin for two weeks

    Is bacterial endocarditis contagious?

    In acute infective endocarditis, the clots are caused by bacterial or fungal infection, inflaming and damaging the heart cells. The infection reaches the heart through blood that’s carrying a concentration of bacteria, a condition called bacteremia. Despite the name, infective endocarditis isn’t contagious.

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