What is the relief of a topographic map?

In modern mapping, a topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief, usually using contour lines, but historically using a variety of methods. A contour line is a line connecting places of equal elevation.

What does topographic relief mean?

Topographic relief. For example, a topographic map contains information about the shape of the Earth’s surface, expressed as contour lines of equal elevation above sea level. Relief or topographic relief describes the amount of topographic change within a particular area.

What are the topographical features?

Topography is a detailed map of the surface features of land. It includes the mountains, hills, creeks, and other bumps and lumps on a particular hunk of earth. Topography represents a particular area in detail, including everything natural and man-made — hills, valleys, roads, or lakes.

What is a relief in geology?

Physical Geology Interactive Glossary: Relief. relief: difference in elevation between any two points; local relief is the difference between adjacent points (e.g., a hill and a valley); total relief is the difference between the highest and lowest points on the map.

How do you find relief on a topographic map?

5) The total relief represented on the maps. (Relief is the difference in elevation found in a region. To calculate relief, subtract the lowest elevation from the highest elevation on the map.) Now you will find the location of each of your sampling points.

What is the definition of a topographic map?

In modern mapping, a topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief, usually using contour lines, but historically using a variety of methods. Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show both natural and man-made features.

What does vertical relief mean?

Elevation of a point on the earth’s surface is the vertical distance it is above or below mean sea level. Relief is the representation (as depicted by the mapmaker) of the shapes of hills, valleys, streams, or terrain features on the earth’s surface. Methods of Depicting Relief.

What is a relief in geography?

In geography, “relief” refers to the highest and lowest elevation points in an area. Mountains and ridges are typically the highest elevation points, while valleys and other low-lying areas are the lowest.

Is water a terrain?

The term bathymetry is used to describe underwater relief, while hypsometry studies terrain relative to sea level. The Latin word terra (the root of terrain) means “earth.” In physical geography, terrain is the lay of the land. Terrain affects surface water flow and distribution.

What is the gradient on a topographic map?

Slope Calculation from Contour Lines in a Topographic Map. Slope is the measure of steepness or the degree of inclination of a feature relative to the horizontal plane. Gradient, grade, incline and pitch are used interchangably with slope. The slope is obtained by dividing the rise over run.

What are the uses of a relief map?

Relief maps depict contours of landmarks and terrain, based on shape and height. They are made by cartographers, who collect geographic and demographic data and then translate that information into various map forms. Shading is also used between contours for better visualization of terrain, known as shaded relief.

What is the maximum relief on this map?

The maximum relief on a topographic map is the difference in elevation between the highest and lowest points on the map.

What does a relief map shows?

A relief map is a map that shows the height of the land, usually by means of contours.

How is relief shown on a topographic map?

Contour lines. Contour lines are an effective device for representing relief on topographic maps. They can be defined as an imaginary line connecting points of equal elevation on the ground surface.

What is the vertical exaggeration of the topographic profile?

To determine the amount of vertical exaggeration used to construct a profile, simply divide the real-world units on the horizontal axis by the real-world units on the vertical axis. If the vertical scale is one 1″=1000′ and the horizontal scale is 1″=2000′, the vertical exaggeration is 2x (2000’/1000′).

Why is it important to always know the vertical exaggeration?

Vertical exaggeration (VE) is a scale that is used in raised-relief maps, plans and technical drawings (cross section perspectives), in order to emphasize vertical features, which might be too small to identify relative to the horizontal scale.

How is a topographic profile constructed?

A topographic profile is a cross-sectional view along a line drawn through a portion of a topographic map. In other words, if you could slice through a portion of the earth, pull away one half, and look at it from the side, the surface would be a topographic profile.

How do you calculate slope on a topographic map?

To calculate a percent slope, simply divide the elevation change in feet by the distance of the line you drew (after converting it to feet). Multiply the resulting number by 100 to get a percentage value equal to the percent slope of the hill.

What is a Hachured contour lines?

One other aspect about contour lines requires special attention. A valley always has a lower end, but a DEPRESSION is an area that is COMPLETELY surrounded by higher elevation. These contours are called HACHURED contour lines. Hachured contour lines have tick marks added to them that point DOWNSLOPE.

What is a Hachure line?

hachured contour. [symbology] On a topographic map, concentric contour lines drawn with hachures to indicate a closed depression or basin. Concentric contour lines drawn without hachure marks indicate a hill.

What is the benchmark on a topographic map?

A benchmark is a point where exact elevation is known and is marked with a brass or aluminum plate. It is marked BM on the map with the elevation numbers given in feet. Benchmarks are useful to help determine contour lines.

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