What is the structure and function of a nerve cell?

Each neuron contains a nerve cell body with a nucleus and organelles such as mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus. Branching off the nerve cell body are the dendrites, which act like tiny antennae picking up signals from other cells.

Then, what is a nerve cell also known as?

Any of the impulse-conducting cells that constitute the brain, spinal column, and nerves in vertebrates, consisting of a nucleated cell body with one or more dendrites and a single axon. 2. A similar impulse-conducting cell in invertebrates. In both senses also called nerve cell.

What is another name for a nerve cell?

The neuron is labeled in this image: The dendrites “attach” (they don’t really attach they form “bridges” called synapses) to the axon terminals of another neuron where the neuron can transfer the impulse through neurotransmitters.

What is the term for a single nerve cell?

Around the cell body is a branching dendritic tree that receives signals from other neurons. The end of the axon has branching terminals (axon terminal) that release neurotransmitters into a gap called the synaptic cleft between the terminals and the dendrites of the next neuron.

How the shape of a nerve cell is related to its function?

Cell Shape. Each cell type has evolved a shape that is best related to its function. For example, the neuron in Figure below has long, thin extensions (axons and dendrites) that reach out to other nerve cells. The extensions help the neuron pass chemical and electrical messages quickly through the body.

What is a nerve cell and its functions?

Neurons are nerve cells, or cells found in the nervous system. These are specialized cells designed to stimulate other cells in the body in order to communicate. Neurons are excitable, which means they function by using electrical stimulation.

Why is the nerve cell so long?

Answer: Nerve cells as are usually long and thin because of the need to transmit information between various parts of the body. It is the key unit of the nervous unit and also helps in carrying impulses from the body. – 3.Animal cells usually have irregular shape.

What is the size and shape of a nerve cell?

A nerve cell is the smallest functional unit of the nervous system. Nerve cells are usually shaped like trees. From the round, pyramidal or spindle-shaped cell body the dendrites (greek: dendrites = tree-like) branch out like the top of a tree and the single axon travels out like the trunk.

What is the basic structure and function of a neuron?

So, to review, neurons are specialized cells of the nervous system that transmit signals throughout the body. Neurons have long extensions that extend out from the cell body called dendrites and axons. Dendrites are extensions of neurons that receive signals and conduct them toward the cell body.

What is the structural adaptation of a nerve cell?

The sheath acts as an insulator – rather like the plastic coating of an electrical wire. Neurones are adapted to their function by being long, so that they communicate with distant parts of the body. They also have branched endings called dendrites.

What is a nerve cell and what does it do?

The axon (nerve fibre) transmits electrical signals from the cell body. The dendrites are branching fibres that receive electrical signals from other neurons. The shape of a neuron is determined by the job it does.

What is the nerve cells?

Types of Neurons (Nerve Cells) The human body is made up of trillions of cells. Cells of the nervous system, called nerve cells or neurons, are specialized to carry “messages” through an electrochemical process. The human brain has approximately 86 billion neurons.

What is the function of the muscle cell?

Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals. Muscle cells contain protein filaments of actin and myosin that slide past one another, producing a contraction that changes both the length and the shape of the cell. Muscles function to produce force and motion.

What is the function of the neurons?

Neurons (also known as neurones, nerve cells and nerve fibers) are electrically excitable cells in the nervous system that function to process and transmit information. In vertebrate animals, neurons are the core components of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves.

How a nerve cell is Specialised?

Transmit electrical nerve impulses and so carry information from one part of the body to another ie from receptor to an effector. Specialised Feature: Dendrites extend from the cell body to make connections with other neurones. Have a long axon (nerve fibre) to carry the impulse to the target organ.

Why is the nerve cell shaped the way it is?

Nerve cells are shaped like long wires so they can carry messages form one end of the body to the other. Some nerve cells in the brain can keep their information and send out messages for a long time. “B” is a small blood vessel that brings food and oxygen to the nerve cells.

What are the functions of the various parts of the neuron?

Neurons (nerve cells) have three parts that carry out the functions of communication and integration: dendrites, axons, and axon terminals. They have a fourth part the cell body or soma, which carries out the basic life processes of neurons. The figure at the right shows a “typical” neuron.

What is the main function of the sperm cell?

Long ‘finger-like’ process with very thin wall, which gives a large surface area. The head contains genetic information and an enzyme to help penetrate the egg cell membrane. The middle section is packed with mitochondria for energy. The tail moves the sperm to the egg.

What is the structure of the nerve?

A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (the projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). A nerve provides a structured pathway that supports the electrochemical nerve impulses transmitted along each of the axons. In the central nervous system, the analogous structures are known as tracts.

Where are the neurons in the body?

to the central nervous system (CNS), the brain and spinal cord. The cell bodies of the sensory neurons leading to the spinal cord are located in clusters, the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), next to the spinal cord.

What tissue is a nerve cell part of?

In the Peripheral Nervous System: Ganglion tissue is composed of cell bodies, dendrites, and satellite glial cells. Nerves are composed of myelinated and unmyelinated axons, Schwann cells surrounded by connective tissue.

What is the function of the nervous system?

The nervous system is a complex collection of nerves and specialized cells known as neurons that transmit signals between different parts of the body. The somatic system consists of nerves that connect the brain and spinal cord with muscles and sensory receptors in the skin.

Why are neurons important?

Neurons are specialized to transmit information throughout the body. These highly specialized nerve cells are responsible for communicating information in both chemical and electrical forms. Sensory neurons carry information from the sensory receptor cells throughout the body to the brain.

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