Its value is about 400 ohms for overhead lines and about 40 ohms for underground cables. In power transmission at 50/60 Hz it is used to find the Surge Impedance Loading (SIL).and is defined as (V^2/Z), where V= tr line voltage (line to line) in kV and Z=Surge Impedance in ohms and SIL is in MW (mega watts).

What is impedance of line?

The characteristic impedance or surge impedance (usually written Z0) of a uniform transmission line is the ratio of the amplitudes of voltage and current of a single wave propagating along the line; that is, a wave travelling in one direction in the absence of reflections in the other direction.

What properties of a transmission line determine its characteristic impedance?

Characteristic impedance is also known as natural impedance, and it refers to the equivalent resistance of a transmission line if it were infinitely long, owing to distributed capacitance and inductance as the voltage and current “waves” propagate along its length at a propagation velocity equal to some large fraction

## What is surge impedance of line?

The surge impedance is the ratio of voltage and current at any point along an infinitely long line. The term SIL or natural power is a measure of power delivered by a transmission line when terminated by surge impedance and is given by.

## What is the meaning of Ferranti effect?

In electrical engineering, the Ferranti effect is an increase in voltage occurring at the receiving end of a long transmission line, above the voltage at the sending end. This occurs when the line is energized, but there is a very light load or the load is disconnected.

## What is the corona loss?

Corona is a phenomenon associated with all transmission lines. Under certain conditions, the localized electric field near energized components and conductors can produce a tiny electric discharge or corona, that causes the surrounding air molecules to ionize, or undergo a slight localized change of electric charge.

## What do you mean by power handling capacity?

The power handling capacity refers to the electrical power that can be supplied to the headphones/loudspeaker without causing damage to them.

## What causes Corona?

A corona discharge is an electrical discharge brought on by the ionization of a fluid such as air surrounding a conductor that is electrically charged. Spontaneous corona discharges occur naturally in high-voltage systems unless care is taken to limit the electric field strength.

## What is Corona and skin effect?

1- corona effect is due to the ionization of air and decompozition of fluids ( rain water on line or moisture) and also by any injury on conductor.2- skin effect mostly occurs on solid conductor. As electricity is THE FLOW OF ELECTRONS and the nature of electon is, IT FLOW NEAR the surface.

## What is skin effect in transmission line?

Skin effect is a tendency for alternating current (AC) to flow mostly near the outer surface of an electrical conductor, such as metal wire.The effect becomes more and more apparent as the frequency increases. The effect is most pronounced in radio-frequency (RF) systems, especially antennas and transmission lines.

## Why is there no skin effect in DC?

Skin effect is caused by the back emf produced by the self induced magnetic flux in a conductor. For a DC current, the rate of change of flus is zero, so there is no back emf due to changes in magnetic flux. Therefore, the current is uniformly distributed throughout the cross section of the conductor.

## What is skin effect Why is it absent in the DC system?

The skin effect causes the effective resistance of the conductor to increase at higher frequencies where the skin depth is smaller, thus reducing the effective cross-section of the conductor. The skin effect is due to opposing eddy currents induced by the changing magnetic field resulting from the alternating current.

## What is meant by bundled conductors?

A bundle conductor is a conductor made up of two or more sub-conductors and is used as one phase conductor. For voltages greater than 220 kV it is preferable to use more than one conductor per phase which is known as Bundle conductor. There are many advantages of using bundled conductors in transmission lines.

## Why do we use bundled conductors?

Bundle conductors are used for transmission purpose as it helps in obtaining better voltage regulation and efficiency by reducing the inductance and skin effect present in the power lines . These causes considerable losses in transmission line .

## What is a stranded conductor?

Stranded wire is more flexible than solid wire of the same total cross-sectional area. Stranded wire tends to be a better conductor than solid wire because the individual wires collectively comprise a greater surface area. Stranded wire is used when higher resistance to metal fatigue is required.

## What is better stranded wire or solid wire?

Stranded wire is much more flexible than solid wire of equal size. For this reason, stranded wire is used when the wire needs to move around frequently, in a robot arm for example. Conversely, solid wire is used when little or no movement is needed, such as prototyping circuits on a breadboard.

## Can you connect stranded wire to solid wire?

If you hold the ends of solid and stranded wire even with each other while you screw on the wire nut connector, the stranded wire will often wrap loosely around the solid wires, resulting in a loose connection. This is especially likely when you’re joining multiple solid wires to one stranded wire.

## What are wire connectors for?

Wire connectors are UL Listed fasteners used to make a tight low impedance connection between two or more electrical wires in an electrical box. Made of flame-retardant materials, wire connectors prevent wires from contacting other wires or exposed metal surfaces, which could cause a dangerous fault or short circuit.

## What is splicing a wire?

Hand Wire Splicing Technique. Step 1: Strip back about 3/4 of an inch of insulation from both wires. Add a section of shrink tubing ont o the wire. (Don’t forget this step… or you’ll regret it after you’ve finished the splice.) Divide the bare strands into two equal sections and form them into a “Y”.

## What does splice together mean?

[splahys] See more synonyms on Thesaurus.com verb (used with object), spliced, splic. to join together or unite (two ropes or parts of a rope) by the interweaving of strands. to unite (timbers, spars, or the like) by overlapping and binding their ends.

## Is the wide blade hot or neutral?

This means the plug has a small blade for the hot wire and a wide blade for the neutral wire, and the wires feeding those blades should not be reversed when you put a new plug on. Always use a polarized plug for a lamp, extension cord or any other cord that’s polarized to begin with.

## Is the bigger plug hot or neutral?

The wide prong on the plug links the threaded base of light bulbs to the neutral terminal (the wider slot) in the receptacle. If the wires are reversed, the hot side of the outlet (the side that can deliver a shock) is wired to the threaded socket.

## Which color is neutral wire?

The protective ground is green or green with yellow stripe. The neutral is white, the hot (live or active) single phase wires are black , and red in the case of a second active. Three-phase lines are red, black, and blue.

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